amoxicillin

Amoxicillin is a β-lactam antibiotic. Amoxicillin destroys cell wall synthesis of sensitive bacteria, its action is clearly bactericidal. Most streptococci are susceptible to the bactericidal action of amoxicillin. Many staphylococci, however, are resistant to this antibiotic.
Combination with clavulanic acid
Amoxicillin is often used in combination with clavulanic acid. This compound is effective against staphylococci or the bacteria that cause gonorrhea .

Molecule names:
Amoxicillin, amoxicillin (not in English, see WHO page), Amoxicillinum (Latin name).

Molecule formula:
16 H 19 N 3 O 5 S

Metabolism: 
The half-life of amoxicillin is 1.0 to 1.5 hours. There are no active metabolites of amoxicillin. Its elimination is mainly renal.

Indications:
– Helicobacter pylori eradication (in combination with another antibiotic such as clarithromycin and a proton pump inhibitor such as omeprazole1 )
– Prophylaxis of endocarditis
– Prophylaxis of Lyme disease (borreliosis) in children, pregnant women and while breastfeeding
– Treatment of Lyme disease (usually not the first-choice antibiotic)
– Urinary tract infections, especially during pregnancy as a first or second choice (beware of risk of resistance)
– In combination with clavulanic acid, this compound preparation can be used against various infectious diseases: pharyngitis, pneumonia, skin infections, generalized salmonellosis, gonorrhea, panariosis (when there is a risk of infectious complications, as a second option)
– Otitis media (otitis)
Impetigo

Side Effects:
The main side effects of amoxicillin are mainly allergies. In 5-10% of people taking amoxicillin, a maculopapular rash may develop. Other allergic signs may appear. However, anaphylactic shock occurs very rarely.
Gastrointestinal side effects are also relatively common, including diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and stomach upset. The risk of diarrhea increases when taken in combination with clavulanic acid (Augmentin® and generics).
Side effects can include damage to blood cells, such as anemia.

Contraindications:
Allergy to penicillin, acute mononucleosis, lymphatic leukemia.
Amoxicillin is not contraindicated during pregnancy.
The dose must be adapted in case of renal insufficiency.

Presentations:
Amoxicillin is available in many countries as film-coated tablets, dispersible tablets, powder or granules for the preparation of a suspension, infusion and injection preparations.

Dosage:
In adults, for respiratory infections, the dose is often 375-750 mg of amoxicillin to be taken every 6-8 hours, both as a maintenance dose.
Amoxicillin tablets and suspension should be taken at the start of a meal (ie with a meal) as this promotes tolerance and gastrointestinal absorption. In general, amoxicillin is well absorbed in the intestine.2.

Notes:
– Amoxicillin was first marketed in 1972. The drug is registered by the FDA, the drug regulatory agency in the United States. The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid has been marketed in many countries since the 1980s.
– The use of a probiotic is recommended.
– Amoxicillin is nowadays less prescribed as a single preparation, but mainly as a compound preparation, ie in combination with clavulanic acid. Cephalosporins, another class of antibiotics, are an alternative to the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid.
– For the eradication of Helicobacter pylori, which particularly causes gastric ulcers, the doctor may prescribe short-term triple therapy with amoxicillin (2x1000mg/day) for 7 days, clarithromycin (2x500mg/day) for 7 days, and omeprazole (2x20mg/day) for 7 days3 .
– Amoxicillin belongs tolistof essential medicines.

Sources & References: 
Sources:  Pharmawiki.ch
, WHO References and Literature: “100 wichtige Medikamente” – Infomed (2020).

Jeanne Kenney
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I’m a stylist trainer, a content creator, and an entrepreneur passion. Virgo sign and Pisces ascendant, I move easily between my dreams, the crazy world I want, and my feet on the ground to carry out my projects.

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