Diclofenac

Diclofenac

diclofenac introduction

Diclofenac is a drug that belongs to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and has analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. It is an inhibitor of the enzyme prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase) and, due to this action, it reduces the formation of prostaglandins, thus reducing the process of inflammation, pain and fever.
Diclofenac is used in short treatments for post-traumatic inflammatory processes, inflammatory and painful infections of the throat, nose and ear. It is also used for treating and relieving pain and inflammation in certain conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and after some surgical procedures.

about diclofenac

chemical molecule

Chemical name

2-(2-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)phenyl)acetic acid

Dose

Diclofenac is commercialized in the form of tablets, oral solution (drops), gel and suppositories, whose doses and concentrations generally vary according to the pharmaceutical presentation of the medicine and according to the manufacturer.

The dose, in general, is around 50mg per tablet. The packages contain a variable amount of pills in the cartridge, according to the manufacturer.

Diclofenac is also marketed as an oral solution (drops), whose concentration varies between 15 and 25mg/ml. The bottle contains a variable amount of the solution (in general, around 20ml), according to the manufacturer.

Diclofenac is also marketed in gel form and the concentration of diclofenac and the amount of medicine in the bottle vary according to the manufacturer.

Diclofenac can also be found in the form of suppositories.

Posology

Adult use

The usual dosage that is used orally daily varies between 75 and 150mg, to be used in divided doses throughout the day. Diclofenac can also be administered rectally, as a suppository, at a dose of 100mg at night.

Diclofenac can also be administered intramuscularly, at a single dose of 75mg daily or, if necessary, 75mg twice daily.

Child Use

Before administering diclofenac to children, consultation with a medical professional is recommended for better guidance.

Diclofenac is usually given to children aged 1 to 14 years in the form of an oral solution (drops) or suppositories, for the treatment of juvenile chronic arthritis. In general, the dose that is administered varies between 1-3mg/kg of body weight per day, divided into more than one administration.

Indications

Diclofenac is indicated for the short-term treatment of post-traumatic inflammatory processes and painful and inflammatory infections of the nose, ear and throat. It is also indicated in the treatment of postoperative pain and inflammation.

Diclofenac is generally also indicated for the relief of pain and inflammation in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and acute gout.

Effects

Diclofenac is an inhibitor of the enzyme prostaglandin synthetase (cyclooxygenase), thereby inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins. As prostaglandin plays a role in the generation of inflammation and pain, the inhibition of this enzyme reduces the tissue inflammatory process.

Adverse effects

The most frequent adverse events that can occur with the use of diclofenac are gastrointestinal disturbances, such as diarrhea, vomiting and constipation. Other adverse events such as dizziness, headache, nausea, indigestion, skin redness, itching, tinnitus, depression, drowsiness, insomnia, and blurred vision are also likely to occur during treatment with oral diclofenac.

Due to its inhibitory characteristic on type 1 cyclooxygenase, which acts to protect the stomach mucosa, ulceration and gastrointestinal bleeding may occur, although with rare incidence, during treatment.

Hypersensitivity reactions, abnormalities in liver function and decreased kidney function have occasionally been observed during treatment with diclofenac.

contraindications

Diclofenac should not be used by patients who are known to be sensitive to it or who have a gastroduodenal ulcer.

Diclofenac should be administered with caution to patients who have asthma or bronchospasm, blood disorders, cardiovascular disease, renal failure and in patients who are being treated with coumarin anticoagulants.

In general, diclofenac is contraindicated for patients in whom the use of acetylsalicylic acid has triggered asthma attacks, acute rhinitis or urticaria.

Interactions

When diclofenac is administered together with medicinal products containing lithium or digoxin, the plasma levels of the latter may be elevated. The effect of certain diuretic medicinal products may be inhibited when diclofenac is administered concomitantly. There are reports that the concomitant use of diclofenac with anticoagulants may increase the risk of bleeding.

Concomitant administration of diclofenac and methotrexate may increase plasma concentrations of the latter, consequently increasing its toxicity. The concomitant use of diclofenac with cyclosporine may exacerbate the nephrotoxic effects of the latter due to the effects of diclofenac on renal prostaglandins.

Concomitant use of alcohol is not indicated.

Pregnancy

Diclofenac must not be used by pregnant women, except on medical or dental recommendation and is contraindicated in the last 3 months of pregnancy due to the risk of undesirable effects on the fetal cardiovascular system (closing of the ductus arteriosus) or due to the risk of childbirth problems.

Lactation

Like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac can pass into breast milk. Consultation with the doctor is recommended when it is necessary to use diclofenac during lactation, since it can be secreted in breast milk, even in small amounts.

Presentation

Diclofenac is commercialized in the form of tablets, oral solution (drops), gel and suppositories, whose doses and concentrations generally vary according to the pharmaceutical presentation of the medicine and according to the manufacturer.

For the presentation of tablets, the dose, in general, is around 50mg per tablet. Packs contain a variable amount of pills, depending on the manufacturer.

Diclofenac is also commercialized in the form of an oral solution (drops), whose concentration varies, in general, between 15 and 25mg/ml. The packages contain a variable amount of solution (in general, around 20ml) according to the manufacturer.

Diclofenac is also marketed in gel form. The concentration of diclofenac and the amount of medicine inside the bottle vary according to the manufacturer.

Diclofenac can also be found in the form of suppositories.

Tips

– Diclofenac is contraindicated for patients who are hypersensitive to it and for patients who have already had asthma attacks, acute rhinitis or urticaria when using acetylsalicylic acid or other prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors;

– The concomitant ingestion of food with the use of diclofenac does not impair its absorption;

– It is not recommended to drink alcohol during treatment with diclofenac;

– Diclofenac should be administered with care to geriatric patients, reducing the dose in elderly people who are underweight, who are physically weak or who are under treatment with diuretics;

– The use of diclofenac during pregnancy is not recommended, particularly in the third trimester of pregnancy, due to the possible inhibition of uterine contractions at the time of delivery and the risk of early closure of the ductus arteriosus in the fetus;

– When the use of diclofenac is required by patients with gastrointestinal disorders or with a history of Crohn’s disease, peptic ulcer, severe heart, liver or kidney disease, strict medical monitoring of the treatment is recommended;

– Diclofenac should not be ingested in amounts greater than 200mg per day in adults, except on medical advice. For children’s use, consult your doctor or pharmacist;

– When an overdose occurs, the physician must be immediately informed, as there is no specific antidote for this medication. The most common symptoms that may occur with an overdose of diclofenac are: vertigo, headache, nausea, abdominal pain, bleeding, as well as impairment of liver and kidney functions. The therapeutic measures that can be adopted when an overdose occurs are gastric lavage and treatment with active charcoal to prevent absorption. Symptomatic and supportive treatment should be instituted if complications occur, such as renal failure, hypotonia, cramps, intestinal irritation and respiratory depression.

WARNING

The information contained on the Creates Health website is intended only for information to the patient and health professionals and does not replace, under any circumstances and situation, the consultation with the medical professional or pharmacist.

à For more information, read the specific leaflet of the medicine to be used for treatment.

Jeanne Kenney
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I’m a stylist trainer, a content creator, and an entrepreneur passion. Virgo sign and Pisces ascendant, I move easily between my dreams, the crazy world I want, and my feet on the ground to carry out my projects.

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