Type 2 diabetes

Summary type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body has difficulty using insulin, or does not produce enough insulin. In this way, sugar, which is the main fuel of the human body, cannot enter the cells and accumulates in the bloodstream, causing several complications.
The incidence of the disease has increased significantly in recent years, both in industrialized and developing countries. Much of this is due to poor eating habits and the advent of fast food . About 90% of cases of diabetes are type 2. In the world, it is estimated that 5% of the total population between 20-79 years of age suffer from type 2 diabetes. In Brazil, about 5.2% have the disease and that number tends to increase.

Type 2 diabetes occurs when cells become insulin resistant. The exact reasons that lead to this resistance are not yet known, but obesity, excess fat and excessive consumption of sugar are some of the main causes mentioned. Type 2 diabetes can also sometimes caused by a decrease in insulin production by the pancreas.
Some risk groups include: sedentary, obese, Hispanic and Latino patients and pregnant women.

The disease often has no clear symptoms, which can delay its diagnosis. Some of them include intense thirst, the urge to urinate, tiredness, fatigue, blurred vision and weight loss. Diagnosis is made through blood measurements to check the sugar level. The percentage of glycated hemoglobin is also measured.

When left untreated, type 2 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as cardiovascular disease, vision loss, stroke, increased infections, high blood pressure, etc.

Treatment is carried out by changing the patient’s eating habits and also through the use of oral hypoglycemic agents, substances that reduce blood glucose.

Some medicinal plants such as olives and fruits such as guava, pitanga and tangerine are beneficial in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Homeopathy has also proved to be important, with the use of medicines based on arnica and sulphur.

The patient with type 2 diabetes must be very disciplined and follow some tips, such as maintaining a balanced and healthy diet, correctly taking the medication, observing hyper and hypoglycemia states, performing regular blood pressure, cholesterol and blood tests and trying to control the stress.

For prevention, it is important to eat healthy foods rich in fiber, avoid excess fat and sugar, avoid being overweight and practice regular physical activity.

3 doctor-validated tips to prevent type 2 diabetes

1 . Stop smoking 2. Lose weight 3. Stop drinking soda

Definition

Type 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease that is characterized by the body’s difficulty in using insulin, so people suffering from this type of diabetes have a poor sensitivity to insulin (a hormone that allows sugar to enter cells). Thus, the body’s sugar metabolism is impaired.

There is no cure for type 2 diabetes and, when not treated properly, it can cause serious health complications, especially in the cardiovascular system.

Epidemiology

Type 2 diabetes accounts for about 90% of diabetic cases, with the other 10% being due to type 1 diabetes or other forms of the disease (such as gestational diabetes) and is constantly increasing, most often due to overweight. , a consequence of the increase in poor nutrition and sedentary lifestyle among the western population. There was also an increase in the incidence of the disease in China, where there are currently more than 10 million diabetics, certainly a consequence of the increase in the westernization of the population.

According to WHO data, it is estimated that about 5% of the world’s population aged 20-79 years suffer from type 2 diabetes and this incidence has increased both in industrialized and in developing countries.

In Brazil, it is estimated that 5.2% of the population suffers from the disease and this incidence tends to increase a lot. Projections from the International Diabetes Federation predict that the number of cases of diabetes will double by the year 2025. The data are worrying since a large number of patients do not know they have the disease, since the diagnosis can be postponed by up to 7 years .

– In 2018 in the United States, approximately 30 million Americans suffered from type 2 diabetes , according to a Wall Street Journal article published in March 2018. This represents almost 10% of the American population.

Causes

Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or the pancreas stops producing this hormone. Details of how this insulin resistance happens are still not fully understood, however, genetic factors and poor eating habits and sedentary lifestyle seem to contribute a lot to the development of the disease.

Sugar is fundamental fuel for cells and needs to enter them with the help of insulin. When the body becomes resistant to insulin or does not produce enough insulin, this mechanism becomes defective and sugar builds up in the bloodstream.

The lifestyle adopted seems to greatly influence the onset of the disease. Some causes identified as important for the disease are:

– obesity or overweight , the main cause of type 2 diabetes

– a bad diet: very fatty diet or excessive consumption of sweets and products with refined sugar (soft drinks, etc.).

A US study published in August 2011 shows that consumption of red meat, especially processed red meat, clearly increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The research authors found that consuming 100 grams of red meat every day increased the risk of becoming diabetic by 19%. This risk rises to 51% if you only eat processed red meat (50 grams), that is, a hot dog, a sausage or two slices of bacon.

A 2017 study conducted by the Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore showed that eating red meat and poultry increased the risk of diabetes (Type 2). Iron, in the form of heme (heme-iron), found in large amounts in red meat and poultry, explains in part this increase in the risk of suffering from diabetes. No increase in the risk of suffering from diabetes has been observed in those who consume fish or seafood. This study was published on August 22, 2017 in the American Journal of Epidemiology .

 lack of physical exercise (sedentary lifestyle)

– tobacco (according to a 2007 Swiss study, smokers are 44% more likely to have type 2 diabetes)

– stress at work, especially among women. Stress at work seems to promote diabetes through two phenomena: disruption of the neuroendocrine and immune systems leading to increased production of hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline, changes in eating behavior and energy expenditure, perhaps as compensation.

– taking medications such as statins and certain antihypertensive agents.

A large Finnish study published in March 2015 in the specialist European journal Diabetologia, showed that the risk of type 2 diabetes, at least among white men (the study involved more than 8,700 Finnish white men aged 45 to 73 years), was about twice as high in people taking statins as in those not taking them, and 46% higher after accounting for correction factors such as obesity so as not to skew the results. According to investigators, statins increase insulin resistance by around 24% and reduce insulin secretion by 12%.

The factors mentioned above are often related to each other, that is, a bad diet and lack of physical exercise contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. In addition to type 2 diabetes, poor eating habits can trigger other diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and even heart attack.

– schizophrenia may directly increase the risk of diabetes, according to a study published in January 2017 in the journal JAMA Psychiatry . The risk of suffering diabetes for people with schizophrenia would be 3 times greater than among the general population. These results come from a study by researchers at King’s College , London. People who are affected by schizophrenia have a lower life expectancy, of up to 30 years, when compared to the rest of the population, mainly because this psychiatric illness increases the risk of suffering from a heart attack or stroke due to diabetes, as a important risk factor.

Pancreatic Cancer and Diabetes
Unexpectedly developing diabetes, for example in a normal-weight person, can be a precursor to pancreatic cancer , according to a team of Mayo Clinic researchers . Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year US survival rate of less than 10% in 2018. The earlier this cancer is detected, the better the chances of treatment. In fact, the disease usually goes unnoticed until the appearance of an advanced form of cancer with, for example, the formation of metastases. But, as researchers at the Mayo Clinicfound and reported in November 2018, for a small number of pancreatic cancer cases, a clue can help doctors find the tumor early, while it’s still curable. This clue is the unexpected diagnosis of diabetes. General practitioners and family physicians should think more about possible pancreatic cancer when diagnosing diabetes, especially the elderly, those of normal weight and those who smoke. In these rare cases, diabetes is directly caused by pancreatic cancer. It is known that insulin is produced in the pancreas.

Groups of risk

The exact causes of type 2 diabetes are still not fully understood. However, some risk factors and groups can be delineated as possible causes of the disease. Among the main ones, the following stand out:

– Obese patients: the greater the amount of fat in the body, the more resistant the cells are to the action of insulin. In addition, fat distribution is also an important factor. Studies indicate that if the fat is distributed mainly in the abdominal region, the greater the chances of the patient developing type 2 diabetes.

– Sedentary patients: physical activity, in addition to controlling weight, uses excess blood sugar to perform exercises.

– Patients with a family history of type 2 diabetes.

– Hispanic, black, indigenous and Asian-descendant patients appear to be at increased risk of developing the disease.

– Age is also an important risk factor, as the incidence of type 2 diabetes increases with increasing age, particularly after age 45.

– Patients with untreated prediabetes : prediabetes is a condition in which blood sugar levels are increased but does not yet characterize diabetes. This condition typically progresses to type 2 diabetes.

– Pregnant patients: if during pregnancy the patient developed gestational diabetes, there is an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes at some point in life. Also, if the mother has given birth to a baby weighing more than 4 kg, the risk is also high.

– People with psoriasisare at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those without psoriasis, this risk increases considerably depending on the severity of the disease. Scientists found that people with psoriasis with 10% or more of their body affected are 64% more likely to develop diabetes than those without psoriasis, regardless of traditional risk factors such as body weight. This study is the first to show a link between the severity of psoriasis and an increased risk of developing diabetes in people suffering from this skin condition. According to a study release published Nov. 14, 2017, the type of inflammation seen in psoriasis is known to trigger insulin resistance (the cause of diabetes). These results come from a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania (University of Pennsylvania ) and published in November 2017 in  the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology  (DOI: 10.1016 / j.jaad.2017.10.050).

Symptoms

The symptoms of type 2 diabetes are rarely detectable without carrying out a blood test (blood glucose measurement), hence the importance of regular consultations with your doctor. It is especially recommended for people who are overweight, since the risk of developing type 2 diabetes is higher in these individuals.

Note that in some cases, the signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes can be:

– The high concentration of sugar in the blood causes the release of fluid from the cells into the blood by osmotic effect. That’s why there’s a feeling of thirst.

– There is frequent desire to urinate, for the same reason as the sensation of thirst. There is fluid output from the cells into the bloodstream by osmotic effect. The fluid is then partially eliminated by the kidneys, so there is a need to urinate more frequently.

– There is a feeling of hunger: the cells receive more or less glucose (which remains in the blood), and therefore they will send a message to the brain that the body is hungry.

– Weight loss: as the body uses more or less glucose, body reserves, especially fat cells, are used as a source of energy and therefore there is weight loss.

– Fatigue : as well as the feeling of hunger and weight loss, the cells run out of glucose leading the body to a feeling of fatigue.

– Decreased vision (late stage of diabetes).

– Blurred vision and risk of developing other eye diseases such as glaucoma and cataracts.

– Healing problems.

– Skin problems ( dry skin ) and mucous membranes ( gingivitis ). The skin becomes dry due to poor blood circulation and the gums can also be affected with the risk of developing gingivitis.

– There is an increase in the number of infections, since diabetes weakens the body and makes it more susceptible to infectious agents.

– Appearance of dark areas on the skin called acanthosis nigricans.

– Erectile dysfunction in men: poor circulation explains this problem.

– Vaginal fungal infections : in diabetes there is an increased risk.

– Loss of sensation, especially in the feet.

In case the signs of diabetes appear, you should immediately consult a doctor, as the consequences of lack of treatment after 10-15 years can be very serious such as macroangiopathies (damage to the veins or arteries), cardiac complications such as heart failure and also eye problems and gangrene.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes is made by measuring blood sugar levels and the effects on hemoglobin.

However, an American academic community recommended on March 8 , 2018, the relaxation of the target value of glycated hemoglobin ( HbA1c ) to values ​​between 7% and 8% in patients with type 2 diabetes. this decision in early March 2018 based on studies. This decision was not unanimous among other medical associations such as the American Diabetes Association , which estimates the HbA1c value as the target value at 7% or less.

– Fasting blood glucose test: In this test, blood samples are collected and the global sugar level is measured in mg/dL or mmol/L. Levels above 126 mg/dL indicate diabetes. Levels between 100 and 125 mg/dL indicate a pre-diabetic state, and below 100 mg/dL is considered normal.

– Random blood glucose test: in this test, it is not necessary for the patient to be fasting. On this test, glucose levels above 200 mg/dL indicate diabetes. Rates between 140 mg/dL and 199 mg/dL demonstrate the pre-diabetic state which, when not treated, progresses to diabetes. Below 140 mg/dL glucose levels are normal.

– Oral glucose tolerance test: in this test, the patient fasts overnight and glucose levels are measured in the morning. After this measurement, the person drinks a sugary liquid and glucose levels are measured periodically. Values ​​below 140 mg/dL are normal. Above 200 mg/dL after 2 hours indicates diabetes. Values ​​between 140 and 199 mg/dL indicate prediabetes.
After the age of 45, patients should constantly monitor their sugar levels to check for the presence or absence of diabetes. After diagnosis, periodic examinations should be performed to monitor the evolution of the disease and treatment. In addition, cholesterol levels are also measured, as well as kidney function, thyroid function and liver health status. The doctor will also measure your blood pressure and need for increased insulin doses.

Complications

Type 2 diabetes is a disease that can become very serious, especially since it is easily ignored and does not have any marked symptoms, which can delay the diagnosis and start of treatment. When not properly treated, the disease can affect several organs and compromise the patient’s quality of life. The various complications of diabetes are caused by too much sugar in the blood, and they include:

– Complications in the cardiovascular system: vessels and microvessels are affected and can generate microangiopathy, which can affect the coronary arteries. It leads to heart failure and myocardial infarction . Another condition is narrowing of the arteries, known as atherosclerosis, which can also cause a heart attack in addition to stroke and increased blood pressure. The risk of stroke is twice as high in people with diabetes and the risk of heart disease is four times as high in these patients, according to data from the American Heart Association .

– Nerve complications: nerves can become compromised, generating a complication known as neuropathy. The most affected nerves are in peripheral regions, such as the feet and extremities of the hands. This causes tingling and pain. In addition, other nerves affected may be those that control digestion, causing nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation.

– Damage to the kidneys: injury to the renal microvessels causes the patient with type 2 diabetes to develop  renal failure and difficulty in filtering body fluids, often requiring hemodialysis.

– Damage to the ocular system: damage to retinal microvessels can lead the patient to loss of vision, which is often irreversible.

– “Diabetic foot”: this condition affects many people with type 2 diabetes and is characterized by insufficient blood supply to the ends of the feet. This leads to increased incidence of infections in addition to necrosis. At this stage, the patient may have part or all of the foot amputated.

– Increased infections, especially in the mouth (teeth and gums) and on the skin. The patient with type 2 diabetes has difficulties in resisting certain infections.

– Osteoporosis : Type 2 diabetes leads to changes in bone density. In women, it is a risk factor for the development of osteoporosis.

– Hearing problems, damage to the vessels of the auditory system can lead to hearing problems, including deafness.

– Alzheimer’s disease : although not fully understood, type 2 diabetes increases the risk of developing vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s type dementia.

In addition to these complications, doctors call another condition the metabolic syndrome. This complication occurs when these four diseases happen: diabetes, obesity, hypertension and high cholesterol. The metabolic syndrome is dangerous for health, as it increases the risk of stroke , blindness,  myocardial infarction and atherosclerosis. Your doctor will be able to tell you which therapy is best to follow.

Treatments

1.   The first measure to be taken in case of type 2 diabetes is to change your lifestyle, that is, adopt a healthy diet and practice physical exercises (sports, walking, etc.). This last measure, according to an American study (which includes children aged 5 years) is more effective than a drug treatment, especially in obese people.

2.  The second measure, in case of failure of the first, is to adopt a drug treatment, with medical approval, with oral hypoglycemic drugs (see different classes below), or insulin, in case of resistance or more severe type 2 diabetes.

Hypoglycemic agents taken by mouth (eg tablet) and injectable (eg injection):

1.   Sulphonylureas (eg glibenclamide,….), interesting treatment in elderly and non-obese people

2.  Biguanides (eg metformin), an interesting treatment for obese people. Metformin
is widely used to treat type 2 diabetes. Its effectiveness is proven and well known. Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver, i.e. the formation of glucagon by the liver. A US study by the National Diabetes Prevention Program   found that people taking metformin saw their risk of diabetes decrease by 31%, as noted by Prevention magazine in April 2018.

3.  As glitazones (for ex. rosiglitazone)

4.  Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (eg acarbose)

5. GLP-1 analogues (eg exenatide, liraglutide). These medications entered the market in the 2010s and can help promote weight loss. Talk to your doctor.
Semaglutide
In the United States, the FDA authorized on December 5, 2017 the marketing of a drug indicated against type 2 diabetes, semaglutide (Ozempic). This medication, which is taken once a week, works by stimulating the body’s production of insulin and reducing appetite. A study carried out by the drug company (Novo Nordisk) showed that over a period of 56 weeks, patients taking a low dose of Ozempic lost an average of 4.3 kg and those taking a high dose lost 6.1 kg. The study had 1,200 participants. Ozempic belongs to a class of diabetes drugs, the GLP-1 analogues, which have some serious side effects, such as kidney damage and inflammation of the pancreas. (Sources: Information from CBSNews and Drugs.com)

6.  Insulin: Some patients with type 2 diabetes may benefit from the use of insulin, which must be administered by injection rather than by mouth.

7.  DPP-4 inhibitors. This is a new class of drugs that emerged around 2010, such as alogliptin.

According to the leading French independent review, known for its independence, Prescrire , the risk-benefit ratio of gliflozins is unfavorable1 . In other words,Prescrireadvises against physicians prescribing glyflozins for type 2 diabetes.

8. SGLT2 inhibitors (sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors). In this class include the following molecules: dapagliflozin, canagliflozin or empagliflozin. This class of drugs leads to a decrease in glucose absorption and an increase in its urinary excretion.

The ultimate goal of treatment for type 2 diabetes is to achieve a fasting blood glucose level below a certain value (it is important to note that blood glucose recommendations can vary from country to country, and from year to year. Rate of blood glucose as an indication, as only a doctor can define your ideal blood glucose level).

Bariatric surgery may be an interesting option for obese patients with a Body Mass Index (BMI) above 35. This procedure should only be indicated for patients at risk, since it is a costly and delicate procedure.

For pregnant women, it is important to talk to your doctor to adjust your treatment during pregnancy.

The doctor may also prescribe medication to control hypertension and cholesterol, even if these are not yet high. This will prevent them from rising during illness.

Herbal medicine

Some medicinal plants can help in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Some of them are:

– olives or olives

– fennel

– Cow stain

– Ginseng

– Cogumelo reishi

– Bitter carqueja

– leather hat

– Jambolan

– green tea

– Chia

– Yerba mate

There are numerous other plants under study for use against diabetes. Its use should not replace conventional medications and should always be monitored by a physician.

In addition to the mentioned plants, there are several fruits, such as guava (fruit and leaves), blueberries, tangerines and pitanga that help reduce blood sugar levels and also prevent cholesterol increases.

– Calendula spray (helps heal diabetic wounds, sold in Brazil at compounding pharmacies)

– According to a June 2016 study, aloe vera would be effective against diabetes when taken orally, at least in part, due to lowering blood sugar levels (glycemia). To reach these conclusions, the researchers performed a meta-analysis, a study of studies. They observed a decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), two markers of diabetes, in people who used aloe vera orally. This meta-analysis included 283 participants. Aloe vera ingestion led to an average decrease in fasting blood glucose of 46.6 mg/dL (0.466 g/L) and in HbA1c of 1%. This study was carried out by the Department of Pharmacy at the University of the Pacific in California, USA, and published on June 17, 2016 in the specialized journalThe Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.

– Drinking 3 cups of coffee a day was associated with a lower risk of suffering from type 2 diabetes, according to a large study (coverage study or umbrella review in English) published on November 22, 2017 in the British newspaper The BMJ (DOI: 10.1136/bmj.j5024). This study also showed that drinking 3 or 4 cups of coffee a day reduced the risk of overall mortality and heart disease.

Tips

Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease that requires a lot of care and monitoring. Some tips then are useful for the disease:

– Regular blood tests to check blood glucose levels. Talk to your doctor and discuss with them how many times a year you need to get tested.

– Always maintain a healthy diet based on fruits, vegetables, whole grains and vegetables. It improves quality of life and maintains good blood glucose levels. Also, practice physical exercises regularly.

– Avoid pinching during meals and always keep the feeding times.

– foot ulcers

Wash your feet regularly and check that there are no injuries or sores, even small ones. Indeed, poorly treated diabetes can cause serious complications in the feet after an interruption in the blood supply to the capillaries. In advanced cases it is called diabetic foot ulcers which are open sores. Sores develop because diabetes damages the nerves and blood vessels in the feet.

It is important to know that a diabetic may have less sensitivity in the feet than a person who does not suffer from the disease. Hence the importance of regularly observing the feet or other suspicious regions of a person suffering from diabetes, even if they do not feel pain. In case of a suspicious foot injury, consult a doctor directly.

In advanced cases, foot ulcers are so severe that they can lead to amputation. In a study carried out by the University of Leeds and published November 20, 2017 in the scientific journal Diabetic Medicine (DOI: 10.1111 / dme.13537), more than half of the 299 patients studied did not see their foot ulcer healed for a year or more, one in seven patients had to have some or all of their feet amputated. In this study, it was also possible to observe that foot ulcers are slow to heal and prone to infections. In the UK, foot ulcers affected around a quarter of the 3.3 million people with diabetes in 2017, according to a press release released in November 2017 by the University of Leeds.

– Reduce alcohol consumption, as it can aggravate diabetes.

– Watch out for signs of hypoglycemia. These can be: sweating, tremor, hunger, anxiety, dizziness, fatigue, headaches, blurred vision, irritability, pale skin, fast heartbeat and weakness.

– Watch out for hypoglycemia. This condition, characterized by low blood sugar levels, can happen at any time, such as when you are driving or operating a heavy machine. Before engaging in certain types of activity, measure your glucose level and make sure it is high enough.

– In case of hypoglycemia, always have something to eat and rest for 15 minutes. After that time, measure your blood glucose again.

– Be alert to the signs of hyperglycemia, i.e. an increase in blood sugar levels. These could be: frequent urination, fatigue, blurred vision, increased thirst, difficulty concentrating, and nausea.

– Keep an eye on the level of ketones in your urine. These compounds are produced when sugar does not enter the cell and the body begins to consume fat. Increased ketones in the body can cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and weight loss. Check your urine ketone levels with specific drugstore tests. Always have a medical follow-up in case of any changes.

– Get regular eye exams.

– Keep your vaccinations up to date.

– Take care of your gums and oral health.

– Always monitor cholesterol and high blood pressure levels.

– Low and very low carbohydrate diets (ketogenic diet) are the only dietary therapies that have consistently shown beneficial results for adults with diabetes (or pre-diabetes ). These are the 2019 findings from the American Diabetes Association 2.

– Try to reduce stress. Anxious or stressed people tend to abandon diabetes diets. In addition, stress releases hormones that prevent insulin from working properly, so the problem gets worse. Practice relaxation techniques and medication to deal with nervousness.

– If you smoke, ask for help to quit smoking, as it makes the disease worse.

Diabetes is a serious disease that requires a lot of discipline from the patient. Therefore, above all, keep a positive attitude towards the disease and follow the doctor’s recommendations.

Prevention

Type 2 diabetes, unlike type 1 diabetes, is preventable to some extent. The main preventive measure is lifestyle change. Below is a chart with some prevention tips:

– Maintain a healthy diet.

– Avoid sweets, soft drinks and excess fats. Give preference to fruits, vegetables and greens.
A French study published in 2017 showed that consumption of antioxidants from fruits, vegetables and teas (eg black tea) was associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. E, lycopene and flavonoids. Coffee, which is rich in antioxidants, was not taken into account, as studies have already shown in the past an association between this drink and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. 1993 and 2008. At the time of study entry, the women did not have diabetes or cardiovascular disease. Participants had to fill out a form including more than 200 foods to choose from to qualify their diet. Each food was noted for its antioxidant effect. The results showed that the risk of diabetes decreased with increasing consumption of antioxidant-rich foods up to a level of 15 mmol/day, above which the effect plateaued. This study was published online on November 9, 2017 in the European journalDiabetology (DOI: 10.1007 / s00125-017-4489-7).

– Get more fiber . They help control weight, blood sugar and reduce the risk of heart disease.
Mediterranean diet and diabetes
The Mediterranean diet may be a good way to improve blood glucose (sugar) levels in people with diabetes, according to a German study conducted primarily by the Deutsche Institut für Ernährungsforschung🇧🇷 The presence of large amounts of dietary fiber in fruits and vegetables seems to be at the root of the beneficial effects of this diet on diabetes, according to a survey carried out by German researchers. To reach their conclusions, the scientists took into account more than 5,000 participants. Compared to other diets (eg paleo diet), the Mediterranean diet was the most effective in reducing fasting blood glucose. This study was published on January 4, 2018 in the European Journal of Epidemiology (DOI: 10.1007/s10654-017-0352-x).

– Practice physical exercises regularly.

– Maintain a healthy weight. Overweight is one of the main risk factors for diabetes.

– Eat whole grains. They have a lot of fiber, help control weight and keep blood sugar low.

– Avoid miracle diets. They may make you lose weight at first, but they are not effective in preventing diabetes. Instead, opt for a food re-education.

– If you have type 2 diabetes, it is preferable to consume whole fruits instead of juices, according to a Harvard Medical School study published in August 2013. It is recommended to vary the fruits consumed daily, for example, to consume several fruits each day different foods such as banana, apple, pear, grapes, etc. Always consult your nutritionist or doctor for more information and personalized advice.

– Consuming 1 yogurt a day can reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes by 18%, according to a large study conducted in the US, which analyzed data from more than 100,000 Americans, published in late November 2014 in the journal BMC Medicine . For the researchers, the daily consumption of yogurt can be an element to be incorporated into a healthy and balanced diet. Consumption of other dairy products, such as milk or cheese, showed no effect. This study was carried out under the direction of Dr. Frank Hu of the Harvard School of Public Health in Boston (USA).

Read our diabetes eating tips: 10 foods for diabetics

Fontes:
Mayo Clinic,  American Journal of Epidemiology, BMC Medicine, Diabetologia (DOI: 10.1007 / s00125-017-4489-7), Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (DOI: 10.1016 / j.jaad.2017.10.050), Prevention, Diabetic Medicine (DOI: 10,1111 / dme.13537), European Journal of Epidemiology (DOI: 10.1007 / s10654-017-0352-x), The Wall Street Journal, Prescrire.

People responsible for and involved in writing this file:
Xavier Gruffat (pharmacist and chief editor of Create health.com.br), Seheno Harinjato (editor of Create health.com.br, head of Infographics).

Jeanne Kenney
 | Website

I’m a stylist trainer, a content creator, and an entrepreneur passion. Virgo sign and Pisces ascendant, I move easily between my dreams, the crazy world I want, and my feet on the ground to carry out my projects.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *