Heart attack


Acute myocardial infarction (popularly called heart attack or heart attack) occurs due to an obstruction of the artery that supplies the heart, called the coronary artery. The result of this occlusion is the death of the heart tissue (ischemic necrosis), since it is no longer irrigated, but “fed” with oxygen-rich blood. When a small part of the heart is reached, heart failure can be established. On the other hand, if necrosis is significant, cardiac arrest occurs, often fatal.
The symptoms of a heart attack are very similar to those of angina pectoris. But during infarction, coronary circulation is completely stopped, unlike angina, in which coronary blood flow is reduced.

In cases of heart infarction, the goal is to relieve pain, but mainly, to save the patient’s life. Once the patient has improved, he will have to proceed with proper medication administration to prevent complications and relapses.

Relatives can also be advised to know how to quickly recognize the onset of a heart attack, to act quickly, and not only save the patients’ lives, but also to prevent the complications of a heart attack.

During myocardial infarction, emergency hospitalization is still required.


Heart infarction is one of the main causes of death in developed countries and its occurrence is closely linked to the lifestyle and diet adopted by individuals. A heart attack is associated with a large number of deaths. It is estimated that in Brazil only half of the infarcted patients reach the hospital alive. According to data from the Ministry of Health, DATASUS, the numbers in Brazil are worrying:
– It is estimated that 25% of deaths in the country are caused by heart attacks;

– About 66,000 people die each year due to heart attacks;

– Between 1998 and 2005 the number of hospitalizations for heart attacks increased by 65%;

– Between 1998 and 2003 the number of deaths increased by 10%.

It is important to emphasize that the number of women affected by heart attacks has increased in recent years. Another alarming fact is that cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes , are the main cause of death in the country, corresponding to 33% of all deaths. On average, out of every 10 victims, 6 are male.


The main cause of myocardial infarction is coronary thrombosis of a heart muscle. The artery to the heart is completely blocked and cannot carry blood to the heart. The cardiac muscle is not irrigated in some areas, the tissue dies and becomes necrotic.

An uncommon cause of a heart attack is spasm of a coronary artery that ends up blocking blood flow to the heart. Drugs, such as cocaine, can trigger this spasm. Another rare cause of heart attack is blockage of blood vessels by blood clots or tumors (metastases) from other parts of the body (called coronary embolism).

Risk factors for heart infarction are divided into non-modifiable factors (age, gender, genetics) and modifiable risk factors (lifestyle: obesity , sedentary lifestyle, hypertension , diabetes , high cholesterol , diet, smoking and stress ).

Thus, improving modifiable risk factors for heart infarction is part of a disease prevention program.

According to an Australian study published in May 2014, the main risk factor that affects the heart of women over 30 is lack of physical exercise. Before age 30, the main risk factor is smoking.

Disappearance of a loved one
The disappearance of a loved one: In fact, the risk of having a heart attack (and stroke ) increases sharply with the disappearance of a loved one and decreases in the four weeks after that person’s death, according to a study published in January 2012 in the United States.

This research carried out with 1,985 adults who survived a heart attack shows that after the death of someone close, the risk of a cardiovascular accident is 21 times greater than normal, in the first day after the bad news and still almost six times greater in the first week. This risk then continues to decline sharply during the month.

“Nurses and doctors, as well as people who are grieving, are at a higher risk of having a heart attack in the first few days and weeks after learning of the death of a loved one,” explains Dr. Murray Mittleman, cardiologist and epidemiologist at Harvard Medical School (Massachusetts), one of the main authors of this work.

Flu and Myocardial Infarction Influenza
can surprisingly increase the risk of a heart attack. There is actually an increase during flu season (generally in winter) of about 20% in cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction. Although the causes are not yet completely known, a possible explanation presented by Brazilian researchers in March 2012 could come from the fact that the flu virus causes ruptures in the endothelium (tissue that surrounds blood vessels), which favor the formation of cholesterol plaque and thus the accumulation of blood clots can lead to a heart attack or other cardiovascular diseases.

People with cardiovascular risks should therefore be vaccinated against the flu, as it is estimated that this action reduces the risk of suffering a myocardial infarction by around 30%.

Sleep and cardiac risk
Several US studies published in 2010 and 2012 showed that sleeping less than 6 hours and more than 8 hours a night can increase cardiac risk including the risk of developing a myocardial infarction. It seems that an average of seven hours of sleep per night can be an excellent recommendation for prevention against myocardial infarction. It is also known that people who sleep 5 hours or less a night have a much higher risk of suffering a myocardial infarction. In fact, the highest risk group, according to this study, are people under 60 who slept less than 5 hours a night: their risk of developing cardiovascular disease is more than triple compared to those who slept seven hours .
The relationships between sleep and cardiovascular disorders are still not exactly clear.

Consumption of excess calcium
Excessive consumption of calcium . In fact, a German study published in 2012 showed that more than 1g (or 1,000 mg) a day of calcium as a dietary supplement was associated with an increased risk of suffering a heart attack. This study was done with approximately 24,000 people over 10 years and the risk of heart attack (heart attack) was 84% ​​higher in people taking more than 1.0 grams of calcium compared to those taking 1.0 grams per day or less.

Another study published in 2010 by the British Medical Journal (BMJ) had already identified this risk. According to a study of 11 trials involving 12,000 people, taking calcium pills is associated with an increased heart rate risk of approximately 25 to 30%.

Smoking and cardiac risk
A European study released at a cardiology congress in Barcelona in September 2014, involving more than 6,000 patients suffering from a heart attack in Berlin (Germany), showed that more than three quarters of people who had suffered a heart attack before of 55 years old were smokers.

A British study published in the specialized journal Heart  on November 29, 2016 showed that all smokers who participated in the study had a higher risk of suffering from a heart attack when compared to those who did not smoke. The risk was particularly high among people under 50. In fact, before age 50 the risk was 8.5 times higher compared to those who didn’t smoke. Between 50 and 65 years old, the risk was 5 times higher and at 65 years old it was 3.5 times higher. This British study was conducted under the direction of Dr. Ever Grech of Norther Hospital based in Sheffield, England. They analyzed data from more than 1,700 adults who had a heart attack (myocardial infarction).

NSAIDs and heart attack
Intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen, diclofenac, celecoxib or naproxen. According to the US drug agency (FDA) which issued a statement in July 2015, NSAIDs can increase the risk of heart attack (and stroke). The FDA reviewed several scientific studies to reach these conclusions. The novelty of this North American research work is that each individual who takes NSAIDs, without necessarily having cardiovascular risk, has an increased risk of suffering a heart attack or stroke. In other words, everyone is at risk. This FDA work also found that the higher the dose, the greater the increase in heart attack risk.

Climate (cold) and heart infarction
Cold seems to be a risk factor for heart infarction. In fact, a Swedish study from 2017 showed that seasonal variations can influence the number of occurrences of heart infarction, with a lower incidence in summer and a higher incidence in winter. This study was presented on August 28, 2017 at a European Society of Cardiology Congress held in Barcelona, ​​Spain. According to researchers at Lund University and Skane University Hospital, who carried out this study, both located in Lund, Sweden, it is unclear whether the increase in cases during winter is a direct result of low temperatures or changes in behavior at this time of year. This large observational study lasted 16 years (from 1998 to 2013) and involved patients from across the country (Sweden). The scientists relied on the SWEDEHEART database that records cases of heart attack in Sweden, as well as meteorological data from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute .(SMHI). During the course of the study, the scientists counted 280,873 heart attacks and in 99% of the cases meteorological data were available. The Swedish researchers found that the average number of heart attacks per day was significantly higher during cold temperatures compared to warmer temperatures. Specifically, the number of heart infarctions was 4 times higher at an average daily temperature below 0 °C than at an average daily temperature above 10 °C. little sunlight and high air humidity.
When it’s cold, the body responds by squeezing the superficial blood vessels, which decreases heat conduction through the skin and, as a result, increases blood pressure. Other cold responses include chills and an increased heart rate, which increases metabolic rate and increases body temperature.
According to Dr. Moman A. Mohammad of Lund University, who was the first author of this study: “In most healthy people, these mechanisms are well tolerated, but people with atherosclerotic plaques in their coronary arteries may experience heart attacks.” The Doctor. Mohammad points out, however, that other factors may indirectly influence the increase in the number of heart attacks in winter, such as the flu or respiratory infections. In prevention, the scientist from the University of Lund suggests a decrease in physical activity in winter and changes in diet could have a favorable impact.

Groups of risk

The people most likely to develop a heart attack are: men, the elderly and people with a family history of heart attack before the age of 60.
These are called non-modifiable risk factors for myocardial infarction:

– Age;

– Sex;

– Heredity;

There are also the modifiable factors influencing occurrence of a myocardial infarction. These factors are:

– Sedentary;

– Food;

– Smoking;

– Hypertension ;

– Diabetes;

– Overweight , obesity ;

– Stress

– Psoriasis

– Chronic renal failure

Age and Gender

Men over 50 and women over 60 can more easily suffer from a myocardial infarction.
In fact, women, because of estrogens (female hormones) are protected until menopause against myocardial infarction – estrogen has a protective effect on the coronary arteries. However, after menopause, there is a reduction in estrogen production, and women over 60 may also suffer from myocardial infarction.

According to an Australian study published in May 2014, the main risk factor that affects the heart of women over 30 is lack of physical exercise. Before age 30, the main risk factor is smoking.


There are families of “cardiacs” who are more likely to have a myocardial infarction. These people should pay particular attention to their lifestyle to avoid a heart attack.

Sedentary lifestyle

A sedentary lifestyle favors obesity, which can then cause the onset of a myocardial infarction. In addition, the constant practice of physical activities leads to improved cardiovascular performance, which ultimately prevents heart attacks.


Fats should be avoided because of their cholesterol and neutral fats (triglycerides). These fats, consumed in excess, are progressively deposited in the arteries, over time causing atherosclerosis, which is the cause of myocardial infarction. It is not necessary to stop eating fatty foods, but you should limit your consumption.

Avoid alcohol. However, red wine has a protective effect on the heart’s blood vessels, but you should only drink 1-2 glasses of red wine a day!


Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor for heart disease, which favors atherosclerosis in the arteries of the heart. Smokers are exposed to a three times greater risk of suffering a myocardial infarction than non-smokers.

Not only is smoking harmful to smokers’ health, but exposure to secondhand smoke is also a risk factor.

Arterial hypertension

High blood pressure overloads the arteries. This causes a high risk of atherosclerosis and therefore myocardial infarction. When measuring blood pressure, two measurements are taken, the measurement of systolic and diastolic pressures.

Systolic pressure should be between 120 and 140 (mmHg).

Diastolic pressure should be between 80 and 90 (mmHg).

Note that one measurement per day does not mean much, as pressure varies throughout the day. If blood pressure exceeds the limits on several occasions, we speak of hypertension.


Diabetes is an insidious, silent disease and can lead to several complications, such as atherosclerosis and heart attack. Therefore, preventing diabetes (type II), thus reducing cardiovascular problems.

Overweight – Obesity

Although less than half of the Brazilian population is overweight , this is a phenomenon that affects a large part of Brazilians. Excess weight is a modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease.
One should take into account not only the BMI (Body Mass Index), but the abdominal circumference as well. The BMI, which is the ratio between weight and height squared, must be between 19 and 25, while the abdominal circumference in women must not exceed 88 cm and in men it must be less than 102 cm.

BMI 19 to 25: normal weight, ideal situation

BMI of 25 to 30: overweight

BMI 30 to 35: obesity

BMI over 35: morbidly obese.


Stress can raise blood pressure and suddenly be a risk factor for heart attack. We are not talking about “normal” stress, the one you feel before going on stage, but the stress you experience all the time, caused by psychological stress and daily nervousness.

Use of illicit drugs

Stimulant drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines can trigger a coronary artery to spasm and cause a heart attack.


Myocardial infarction is an  absolute medical emergency , contact emergency services as soon as possible in case of suspicious symptoms or signs.

Silent myocardial infarction
A myocardial infarction can be characterized by symptoms, but this is not an essential condition. In about half of the cases of myocardial infarction, the person does not feel any symptoms, speaking equally of silent myocardial infarction or silent cardiac crisis. The latter can also be fatal, in other words, even without the presence of clinical symptoms (read further below) myocardial infarction can be fatal.
The doctor can detect a myocardial infarction thanks to diagnostic methods such as the electrocardiogram (ECG).
According to an American study carried out by the Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, in the United States, involving more than 9,000 participants, about half of the participants did not show clinical signs of myocardial infarction. When detailing, the scientists observed that about 9 years after the beginning of the research, 386 participants suffered a myocardial infarction with clinical symptoms and 317 experienced a silent (asymptomatic) cardiac crisis. According to researchers, suffering a silent heart attack increases the risk of death from heart disease by a factor of 3. This study also showed that men have more frequent silent cardiac crises than women, although they cause more deaths among females. This study was published in May 2016,

Symptoms of Myocardial Infarction (if present)
Note: Read further below to understand the differences between men and women in terms of symptoms of Myocardial Infarction.

A myocardial infarction can be perceived through some clinical signs or symptoms:

– severe pain in the chest

– pain that radiates towards the shoulder and left arm

– pain lasting more than 15 minutes despite rest

pain that persists despite taking nitroglycerin

– anguish or anxiety

– difficulty breathing (with or without chest pain). This symptom is more frequent in people over the age of 65 and among diabetics.

– paleness

– nausea and vomiting

– possible loss of consciousness

– excessive sweating

– rapid heartbeat

– digestive disorders

Onset and Duration of Symptoms
Symptoms can last from a few minutes to a few hours. They can appear, disappear and reappear.

Differences between men and women
In men, in 90% of cases (when symptoms manifest themselves), the symptoms of myocardial infarction are clear and are characterized especially by violent and intense pain in the chest, which radiates to the arm and to the elbow. left shoulder. There is often heavy sweating.

In women, the symptoms of myocardial infarction are, in 70% of cases, not very marked in terms of intensity, also manifesting themselves in the form of back pain, sleep disturbances, pain in the neck and jaw, fatigue, burning in the stomach or nausea and vomiting. These non-specific symptoms are often confused with other illnesses.
As we know that a heart attack is an absolute medical emergency, every minute is critical to saving the patient’s life, women are thus at a higher risk compared to men at this crucial moment.
According to an English study, women take an average of 12.5 minutes longer than men to reach emergency services after a myocardial infarction.

Furthermore, statistically women tend to have a heart attack an average of 10 years after men and to develop certain associated diseases like diabetes more. The origin of the heart attack in women is less associated with a narrowing of the blood vessels, which can be treated relatively easily (by enlargement). Instead, they more often suffer from diffuse coronary artery disease. In this case, local ablation has less chance of success.

Higher mortality in women during the year following a heart attack
A study published by the Technical University of Munich (TUM) found that during the year following a heart attack, women have a significantly higher risk of mortality than men. This risk, according to the German researchers, was 1.5 times higher. This study was published on October 20, 2017 in the scientific journal PLOS ONE (DOI: 10.1371 / journal.pone.0186783).

Symptoms Well Before Myocardial Infarction
In women, the first symptoms or signs of a myocardial infarction may appear several months before the crisis. According to surveys, most women complained of significant symptoms up to 12 months before the heart attack. These symptoms are very often (unusual) fatigue, sleep disturbances and difficulty breathing. Other symptoms may be present, such as tingling in the arms, pain, anxiety or even digestive disorders.

In men, some signs may announce a heart disease, such as erectile dysfunction, early baldness or scar-like features on the earlobe.

Myocardial infarction, the reactions that save
The speed of reaction is the most important factor in saving someone suffering from a myocardial infarction. It’s needed:

– quickly call the emergency service

– inform the name of the person in question and his/her location

– elevate the upper body of the person concerned, with the aid of pillows, for example.

– help her breathe by removing anything that might get in her way, such as a tie.

– pending help, if the person in question is conscious. It is recommended that they ingest crushed aspirin or chew it (dosage 325 mg for an adult), unless they are allergic to this medicine or have contraindications. Aspirin helps reduce damage to the heart caused by a heart attack. It is advisable to consume chewable aspirin to speed up the entry of the active ingredient into the blood, which is more effective than the classic pill intake. The affected person can also consume nitroglycerin, if this medicine has been prescribed and recommended by a doctor.

– if the person concerned becomes unconscious, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). While waiting for help, the emergency service can advise you on how to perform CPR.


The diagnosis of heart infarction is based on anamnesis of the patient’s symptoms and, if this is not enough, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is performed.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

The electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnoses or confirms the diagnosis of heart infarction. In fact, the waves described on the electrocardiogram, characteristic of a heart attack, show the abnormal activity of the heart.

The doctor may perform angiography, a medical imaging technique to look at blood vessels.

Biological analyzes

Through blood tests it is possible to search for specific proteins in the heart muscle, the CPK MB and troponin I or T, after 6 hours of heart infarction. This analysis will mainly confirm the diagnosis. Never wait for the results of this analysis to start treatment against infarction. In fact, during a heart attack, time works against the patient. We must act quickly to avoid the consequences of the disease and save the patient’s life.

Caution, some heart tests performed regularly, such as angiography, do not always detect the risk of heart problems or stroke, especially among women. It is important to go to a cardiologist or physician with a great understanding of female cardiac risk. By performing some blood tests in addition to traditional cardiac tests, the physician may eventually be able to identify specific proteins and enzymes of heart muscle disorders.


Complications of a heart attack are:

– The occurrence of heart failure;

– Cardiac arrhythmia ;

– Problems with heart valves;

– Rupture of weakened areas of the heart (usually fatal);

– Pulmonary and systemic thromboembolism;

– Cardiac aneurysm;

– Cardiac arrest;

– Death.


The treatment of myocardial infarction is different in the acute crisis and in preventing a recurrence.

Acute heart attack crisis

During the acute crisis of myocardial infarction, it is essential to act quickly. The speed of treatment will determine not only the patient’s survival, but also the impact of possible sequelae.
A heart attack is a medical emergency. It is always necessary to call an ambulance, so that the patient is quickly attended to and taken to the hospital. So, when someone complains of chest pain radiating to the left arm and shoulder, an ambulance should be called immediately.

After an electrocardiogram, the doctor will give the patient emergency medication. In general, drug treatment is done with the administration of analgesics, tranquilizers to calm anxiety (diazepam) and local injection of thrombolytics to dissolve the blood clot, such as aspirin and clopidogrel 300mg. The doctor also uses nitrate derivatives that are antiarrhythmic.

Then an angioplasty can be performed. Angioplasty consists of dilating the clogged artery with the help of an inflating balloon. The doctor places a stent, which is a metal object that maintains the structure of the artery, allowing blood to flow and irrigate the heart.

Basic treatment after a heart attack

Once, the patient has recovered, he will have to take care of himself and make use of an appropriate medication to prevent the recurrence of the myocardial infarction.
The doctor will prescribe aspirin , clopidogrel 75mg (antiplatelet), or heparin that prevents blood clotting (anticoagulant), a beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor to lower blood pressure, as well as statins or fibrates. to prevent the development of atherosclerotic plaques due to excess cholesterol. This treatment will prevent thrombosis and therefore the recurrence of myocardial infarction.

In addition to medication, it will be necessary to re-educate the patient, that is, correct bad habits and give them notions of a healthy lifestyle. In fact, after a myocardial infarction, the heart is weakened, often leading to heart failure. It is possible to give digoxin to strengthen the heart muscle.

Dietary rehabilitation with the establishment of adequate physical activity should be considered, usually under medical supervision. In fact, after a myocardial infarction, the heart can no longer work with the same intensity as before. Therefore, one should not overload the heart with activities that demand a lot of effort.

surgical measures

In addition to drug treatments, the doctor may recommend surgery to patients, such as coronary angioplasty and the use of stents (metallic meshes that keep the coronary arteries open) and heart surgery, such as saphenous vein bypass.


It is fundamental during the treatment of heart infarction to take the medication rigorously to avoid recurrences. In addition, it is necessary to regularly visit the doctor. The doctor will run tests to monitor the patient’s condition and adjust his treatment if necessary.
– If the patient uses a lot of medication, it is possible to create a weekly planner, to help in complying with the treatment, that is, to guarantee an adequate and regular intake of the medication;

– In addition to drug treatment, lifestyle changes are recommended. In a patient who has suffered a heart attack, it is necessary to discuss with his doctor the appropriate physical activities, as the heart is weakened after a myocardial infarction. Therefore, do not do sports that are rough or that will strain your heart.

It is normal for the patient who has already had a heart attack to have feelings of fear and suspicion, thinking that he will have a heart attack at any time. It is important that, in these cases, the patient always leans on the family and correctly uses the medication indicated by the doctor. It is not uncommon for patients to suffer from depression after the infarction, with the fear of imminent death. Cardiac rehabilitation programs aim to prevent depression and improve the patient’s quality of life after a heart attack.

Cardiac rehabilitation programs also aim to make the patient lose their fear of doing normal daily activities such as exercise, work and even sex. Many hospitals have this type of support and counseling based on medication, changes in lifestyle and emotional support. If you want to know how to participate in these programs, talk to a doctor.

Exercise after a heart attack
After suffering a heart attack, doing a lot of physical exercise can kill you, as shown by an American study published in August 2014 in the journal “Mayo Clinic Proceedings”. The limit is about 150 minutes of sport per week or 75 minutes of vigorous exercise, that is, practicing sport for more than 150 min or 75 min (intensive) per week increases mortality in patients who have suffered a heart attack.

It is estimated that patients with cardiovascular disease should exercise 30 to 40 minutes a day, almost every day, but not for more than an hour.


Since there are modifiable risk factors for myocardial infarction, it is possible to act on them. Remember that the modifiable risk factors for myocardial infarction are:

– Overweight, obesity ;

– Food;

– Sedentary lifestyle;

– Smoking;

– Hypertension ;

– Diabetes;

– Hypercholesterolemia;

– Stress .

With regard to diseases such as hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or hypertension, if they are diagnosed, drug treatment should be given to treat them. For hypercholesterolemia and hypertension, proper nutrition can reduce both diseases by promoting good cardiac activity.

A French study published in September 2011 showed that red wine has beneficial effects in heart operated patients. In fact, moderate consumption of red wine (1-2 glasses a day) improves blood flow, lowers cholesterol levels and increases the level of antioxidants in patients who have suffered a heart attack. The study was carried out with Bourgogne de garde wine, rich in tannins and antioxidants.

obesity, overweight

Obesity and being overweight can strain the heart, and increasingly, excess fat can build up in blood vessels and cause arteriosclerosis.

Obesity is measured by BMI, which is between 19 and 25. Thus, someone measuring 1.65 meters must weigh a maximum of 68 kg.

To do this, it is useless to believe in fad diets that reduce weight at once. This can cause the yo-yo effect. The ideal is to gradually reduce the diet until you reach the ideal weight, so that it is maintained. For this, we must pay attention to our diet, exercise regularly and drink plenty of water.


A diet low in saturated fatty acids, and with antioxidants favors the health of coronary arteries that are less obstructed. We must favor the use of olive and canola oil, to the detriment of sunflower oil and butter. Red wine is also good for your health, as long as you don’t drink more than two glasses a day.
We also advocate a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and fish instead of meat.

A diet corresponding to the food pyramid prevents overweight. So, we should eat vegetables, cereals and fruits, and we should reduce the consumption of meat, butter (contains saturated fatty acids), egg yolk, viscera and seafood (rich in cholesterol).

In a person with hypertension, excess salt in their food should be avoided, because salt tends to increase blood pressure.

We must never deprive ourselves. Deprivation takes away joy. But it is necessary to moderate the consumption of foods rich in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids and salt.

Sedentarism – Physical Activity

Physical activity not only helps reduce obesity, but also has a beneficial effect on heart activity and overall mood through the release of endorphins.
Like anything in excess, physical activity can also be harmful in excess. One should not overload and rather maintain regularity. So, doing physical activity for 30 minutes three times a week will be more beneficial than a two-hour activity once a week.


Smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is therefore advisable to stop smoking . There are many solutions for this, such as

– Nicotine patches;

– Chewing gum with nicotine;

– Nicotine inhalers to maintain the “smoking gesture”;

– Electronic cigarettes without nicotine.

The risk of cardiovascular disease after smoking disappears completely after about 3-5 years after smoking cessation. Your body and the environment (passive smoking) will thank you for this wise decision.

It is important to remember that people who smoke passively, that is, who are in the same environment as smokers and end up inhaling the smoke, have a high chance of developing a heart attack, as this smoke is as toxic as the cigarette itself.


Practice sports and relaxation exercises that help reduce stress and contribute to a better life. A healthy lifestyle is also advisable, with

– Avoid drinking too much coffee and other stimulants;
– Go out, have fun;
– Take time for yourself;
– Surround yourself with positive people;
– Surround yourself with books that promote self-development;
– Maintain a healthy diet;
– Take time to eat;
– To go hiking;
– Learn to empty and not hold grudges, sadness, know how to speak.

Sleep and heart attack

A very interesting scientific study published in 2010 says that the individual must sleep 7 hours a night to limit the risk of myocardial infarction, neither more nor less than 7 hours (because in both cases, the risk of infarction was statistically higher in this study).

Another study published in 2012 also showed that people who sleep less than 6 hours or more than 8 hours a night had a higher risk of developing a myocardial infarction. Also Read: Causes of Myocardial Infarction

Non-modifiable risk factors

Regarding non-modifiable risk factors (age, gender, family history), it is essential to know the risk factors and take advantage of existing screening campaigns. Your doctor or pharmacist will ask the right questions and test you for diabetes, cholesterol and blood pressure, for a first assessment of your risk of cardiovascular disease. In addition, waist circumference, weight and BMI (Body Mass Index) will also be measured. Considering the results obtained, the person will be guided by the doctor, if necessary, to start a treatment. In fact, hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes are called “silent diseases”. Therefore, early detection is essential to better treat these diseases, and also to prevent cardiovascular complications.

Women, thanks to estrogen, have a lower risk of suffering a heart attack. These female hormones really do provide good protection for the coronary arteries. On the other hand, after menopause, there is a decrease in estrogen production, which causes many inconveniences, such as an increased risk of heart attack and a greater risk of osteoporosis . Thus, women should not fail to also adopt rules and changes in their lifestyle to prevent a heart attack.

Flu and heart attack

As already discussed in the part on the causes of infarction. People with cardiovascular risks should be vaccinated against the flu, as it is estimated that this action reduces the risk of suffering a myocardial infarction by around 30%.
See the Heart Attack Causes section for more information on the link between the flu and a heart attack.

Dark chocolate has a preventive effect on heart attacks

As we saw in the heart attack herbal medicine section, dark chocolate can have an interesting effect on heart attack prevention. Furthermore, an Australian study published in June 2012 confirmed the benefits of regular consumption of dark chocolate in preventing myocardial infarction. Daily consumption for more than ten years of 100 grams of chocolate with at least 70% cocoa could prevent 70 fatal and 15 non-fatal cardiac events within a population of 10,000 people.

Food fibers

A study published at the end of April 2014 by researchers from Harvard, in the United States, showed that fiber intake increases life span among people who have suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Individuals eating very high-fiber foods saw their risk of having a heart attack and stroke decrease by about 25%, compared to those who ate little fiber. Cereal fibers showed a more significant decrease in cardiac risk than other foods such as fruit.


Is alcohol consumed in moderation good for the heart? It depends…

Jeanne Kenney
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I’m a stylist trainer, a content creator, and an entrepreneur passion. Virgo sign and Pisces ascendant, I move easily between my dreams, the crazy world I want, and my feet on the ground to carry out my projects.

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